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Алгоритмизация в обучении
It must be said that the cybernetic approach to instruction and the interest in programmed instruction did not arise by chance in the Soviet Union. It was prepared for by the logic of developing several strictly psychological and pedagogical ideas and approaches which, with the appearance of cybernetics, were interpreted cybernetically and therefore began to develop as psychological-cybernetic ideas. Among these ideas, it is necessary above all to draw attention to the idea of controlling the formation of students’ thought processes with the help of special directions, some of which, as it turned out, can be interpreted as algorithmic-type and others as heuristic-type. The interpreting of these directions in terms of the algorithm theory and the theory of heuristic process opened the way in the Soviet Union for a new scientific field, which has received the appellation of “algorithmization of instruction.” This trend, which originally had worked out the problem of instructing students in common methods of thought, acquired a more general significance and began, with the help of algorithms, to work out not only the problem of forming reasoning in students, but also other mental processes, as well as every possible form of behavior. Moreover, it became clear that it was possible to describe algorithmically not only the activities of the students, but also the work of the teacher, which permitted the interpretation of programmed instruction as algorithmized instruction.“ – L. N. Landa, ”Programmed Instruction in the Soviet Union," in Using Programmed Instruction (1973)
The optimization of control - of students and teachers, of behaviors and ideas...