Education Politics

Why America’s Schools Have A Money Problem.” (That’s NPR on school funding.)

Elsewhere in money problems, lobbying for education-related issues. Politico notes that the loan company Navient spent $710,000 in the first quarter of the year (up from $410,000), “making it the biggest spender among education organizations and companies.” Welp, now I know where my student loan interest goes, I guess. “The five top education lobbying spenders during the first quarter: Navient ($710,000), National Education Association ($677,000), University of California ($540,000), Apollo Education Group ($360,000), American Federation of Teachers ($317,443).”

Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau has earmarked $50 million for the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics in Waterloo, Ontario. Bonus points for being able to succinctly explain quantum computing when US politicians can’t even seem to grasp how email works.

I know I swore I’d never write about education and Bitcoin or blockchain again, but I can’t resist sharing this story: “A Florida man was arrested on Thursday for participating in a bribery scheme aimed at supporting an illegal bitcoin exchange operated by his son and owned by an Israeli behind a series of hacking attacks on organizations such as J.P. Morgan Chase,” reports Fortune. And here’s the kicker: “Michael Murgio, who serves on a school board in Palm Beach County, was charged in an indictment filed in federal court in Manhattan for participating in a scheme to pay bribes to let the bitcoin exchange’s operators gain control of a credit union.”

“Students At Fake University Say They Are ‘Victims’ Of Government Sting,” Buzzfeed’s Molly Hensley-Clancy reports.

Amazon has won a $30 million contract to sell digital textbooks to the New York City schools.

Via The LA Times: “A former local charter school operator has agreed to pay a $16,000 fine for misconduct that includes using public education funds to lease her own buildings.”

Via the AP: “The chancellor of Washington’s public schools [Kaya Henderson] asked a food-service contractor for a $100,000 contribution to a Kennedy Center gala honoring teachers, weeks after the company was accused in a whistleblower lawsuit of cheating the city out of millions of dollars, according to emails obtained by The Associated Press.”

Via The Tennessean: “The House sponsor of a bill that would require students in public school grades K–12 and higher education institutions to use the restroom that corresponds with their sex at birth is killing the controversial legislation.”

Elsewhere in Tennessee politics, Politico reports that “A bill that would allow full-time employees, including professors, to carry weapons at Tennessee public colleges and universities is headed to Republican Gov. Bill Haslam. The bill passed the state House on Wednesday.”

Presidential Politics

The 74 has a story on “Trump’s Education Legacy” (which includes an increase in school bullying).

Via The Chronicle of Higher Education: “John Kasich Tells Student Worried About Sexual Assault to Avoid Parties With Alcohol.”

Education in the Courts

The US Supreme Court has refused to hear an appeal from The Authors Guild, challenging Google’s book-scanning efforts. This brings to a close the 11-year legal battle over the digitization project.

“A federal judge has ruled that the Consumer Financial Protection Bureau doesn’t have the legal authority to investigate the accreditation of for-profit colleges,” The Chronicle of Higher Education reports.

The latest in the ongoing battles over teacher tenure: “The North Carolina Supreme Court on Friday ruled unconstitutional a state law that phased out job protections for teachers who had already earned them,” The News & Observer reports.

Via The New York Times: “Weeks after a new North Carolina law put transgender bathroom access at the heart of the nation’s culture wars, a federal appeals court in Richmond, Va., ruled on Tuesday in favor of a transgender student who was born female and wishes to use the boys’ restroom at his rural Virginia high school.”

“An 18-year-old woman in Ohio is being charged with kidnapping, rape, sexual battery and a variant of distributing child pornography. What led to this extraordinary list of alleged crimes?” asks NPR. “Live-streaming the alleged rape of her 17-year-old friend” via the Twitter-owned Periscope. She “got caught up in the likes,” says the county prosecutor.

The EU has accused Google of anti-trust violations relating to Android.

EFF Asks Supreme Court to Overturn Dangerous Ruling Allowing Patent Owners to Undermine Ownership.” Boing Boing offers a bit more of an explanation about the case, in which Lexmark claims that refilling printer cartridges violates their patent (not that they have a patent on refillable printer cartridges but that they have a license on printer cartridges period.) More news about Lexmark in the “Funding” section below.

VCU’s Jon Becker – self-described as a “lawyer dude who lives in the world of online learning” – has written a blog post about the recent lawsuit by George Washington University over the quality (or lack thereof) of their online master’s degree problem.

Testing, Testing…

“Obama Administration Takes Action to Ensure Fewer and Better Tests for Students” says the Department of Education press release. “Taking action,” in this case, means releasing some case studies and posting a notice on the Federal Register about how a competitive grant program can be more “innovative.”

Via Reuters: “At least five times in the past three years, U.S. high school students were administered SAT tests that included questions and answers widely available online more than a year before they took the exam.”

And the response from the organization responsible for the test: “Throughout the 90-year history of the SAT, the College Board has faced the issue of cheating. The sad truth is that cheating is as old as testing,” says The College Board, which contends that much of the recent discussion about cheating and test security relates to “the old SAT.”

Via Chalkbeat: “What a day is like inside Pearson’s test scoring facility.” (tl;dr the scorers actually work from home.)

Elsewhere in Pearson’s testing contracts: “Taxpayers looked set to be left with a large bill on Monday, after a contract for the management of Britain’s driving theory tests was yanked from the company which won it, and back into the hands of the prior concessionaire. Sky News reported Learndirect – which was due to begin supplying the theory tests later this year – agreed to a multimillion pound settlement with the Government this month. Rather than going ahead, the firm’s contract was cancelled by ministers and handed back to FTSE 100 publishing group Pearson for up to four years without re-tendering. Pearson had been administering the tests prior to the new contract.”

ACT and Kaplan Start Online Content Instruction,” Inside Higher Ed reports. The Chronicle of Higher Education offers a few more details on the offering. And via Education Week: “The College Board has lashed out at its rival, ACT Inc., saying its plan to add live teaching to its online test-prep service is more about money than public service, and accusing ACT of trying to ‘replace’ classroom teachers with long-distance instruction.”

“Technical Glitch Foils Testing in New Jersey,” The Wall Street Journal reports.

Whittier Goes Test Optional in Admissions,” says Inside Higher Ed.

“Why testing prevails in K–12 education,” according to Education Dive.

The Scripps National Spelling Bee is going to get tougher.

Online Education (The Artist Formerly Known as “MOOC”)

2U Partners With Syracuse University to Build Online J.D. Program,” Edsurge reports. 2U already offers several other master’s degree programs with Syracuse.

McGraw-Hill Education’s ALEKS Adaptive Software Will Be Used in ASU’s Global Freshman Academy,” says the press release, which only uses the acronym MOOC twice.

Via the San Jose Mercury News: “California Virtual Academies: Is online charter school network cashing in on failure?” Pretty much, yes. (California Virtual Academies is run by K12 Inc.)

Copy-pasted from Campus Technology without comment: “Educational Testing Service (ETS) has launched ProEthica, an online ethics training program for educators and teachers in training.”

Edsurge reports that Udacity has expanded into China, making “100 free computer science courses available at to aspiring Chinese developers and providing localized support for its ‘nanodegree’ program.” The company has also launched a local “career focused meetup service” called UConnect in San Francisco, LA, and New York.

Some big "human resources"-related news about Udacity in the "HR" section below.

Via Inside Higher Ed: “The University of Florida will this fall let its fully online students pay an optional fee to get at least parts of a traditional college experience. For about $46 a credit hour, students enrolled in the online degree programs offered through UF Online will be able to access recreation centers, ride the campus shuttle, buy discounted tickets to athletic events, use university health services and more.”

The for-profit Walden University will launch an online competency-based master’s degree in early childhood education. The CBE bit is being branded as “Tempo Learning.”

Brandman University will launch an online competency-based bachelor’s degree in information technology.

Meanwhile on Campus

“Costs for building LA Unified’s data system may top $200 million,” KPCC reports. Microsoft is building it so insert bloat joke here.

Via The New York Times: “272 Slaves Were Sold to Save Georgetown. What Does It Owe Their Descendants?”

Via The Chronicle of Higher Education: “More than 520 faculty and staff members and graduate students at the University of Wisconsin at Madison have signed an open letter that says the university police department went ‘well beyond the call of duty’ on Thursday afternoon when officers entered a campus auditorium during an Afro-American-studies class and arrested a senior, Denzel J. McDonald, on 11 counts of graffiti. In the letter, the signers said they would ‘refuse to be silent’ and they called for an end of ‘anti-black racism on campus.’”

St. Louis Public Schools to ban suspensions for youngest students,” the St. Louis Post-Dispatch reports.

“Richard Payne, director of Douglas County School District security, spent $12,000 on 10 Bushmaster semi-automatic long rifles that will be given to the district’s in-school security guards,” Boing Boing reports.

Via the AP: “BYU students investigated by school after reporting rape.” Follow-up stories from The Chronicle of Higher Education: “As Protests Grow, BYU Releases Unusual Video to Defend Sex-Assault Response,” “Under Fire, Brigham Young Will Review Title IX and Honor Code Enforcement,” and “Brigham Young Student Who Sought Immunity for Assault Victims Files Title IX Complaint.”

Via The Chronicle of Higher Education: “Moments after a group of Duke students ended their sit-in at the Allen Building, seven of the nine original protesters received emails from the office of student conduct saying that they had violated the Duke Student Code of Conduct. The protesters were charged with ‘failure to comply’ for standing on the balcony.”

A Syllabus for Students When Dealing with Law Enforcement” by Washington State Teacher of the Year Nate Bowling.

The New York Times explores universities’ practices of recruiting international students who do not meet admissions standards, with a focus on the Global Tree Overseas Education Consultants which recently helped Western Kentucky boost its enrollment figures.

“Greater Competition for College Places Means Higher Anxiety, Too,” adds The New York Times.

“The Kansas-based Wright Career College is shutting down all of its campuses,” according to The Chronicle of Higher Education.

“Businesses, nonprofits and communities are turning to private dollars for help in establishing free community college programs,” Inside Higher Ed reports. Meanwhile, San Francisco Board of Supervisor member Jane Kim has proposed eliminating tuition at the City College of San Francisco for the city’s residents; and Kentucky’s newly approved budget would also offer “last dollar aid” for community college.

“UC-Davis Was Ridiculed for Trying to Sway Search Results. Many Other Colleges Do the Same,” says The Chronicle of Higher Education in news that, sadly, should surprise no one.

Via The Pacific Standard: “Race-Based Activism Is Changing College Campuses.” More on race and activism, with a specific look at Emory University, via The Chronicle of Higher Education.

“Hundreds of pupils at school near toxic site in east China fall ill, some with cancer, state TV reports,” according to the South China Morning Post.

Via Vulture: “Prince’s Ex-Wife Manuela Testolini Is Building a School in His Memory.” I have an idea of what educators can do in his memory: make sure students have full control of their IP.

Accreditation and Certification

There’s more accreditation-related news in the “Courts” and in the “HR” sections.

Via Inside Higher Ed: “The Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools has ordered ITT Technical Institutes to prove why it shouldn’t lose its accreditation or otherwise be sanctioned, the company told investors on Thursday.”

The technology-that-will-not-be-named will make college credentials more secure, The Chronicle of Higher Education contends.

University Ventures’ Ryan Craig writes in Techcrunch about “the new push toward competency-based education,” which right there tells you a lot about where “the new push” is coming from.

Go, School Sports Team!

Via The Telegraph: “Georgia paid Ludacris $65,000 to perform before G-Day spring game.”

“Can college athletics continue to spend like this?” asks the USA Today.

Via The Chronicle of Higher Education: “Twenty-three Division I teams will be banned from postseason play in 2016–17, two more than the year before, according to the National Collegiate Athletic Association's annual report on Academic Progress Rates.”

From the HR Department

AltSchool Pulls New COO From ‘Call of Duty’ Video Game Company,” Edsurge reports. Call of Duty is often touted for its ultra-violence, but hey! If I was going to combine the horror of school-as-surveillance with a violent video game, I would definitely go with Call of Duty. Anyway, the hiring of former Activision exec Coddy Johnson is positioned by ed-tech insiders as Very Exciting News. AltSchool CEO and founder Max Ventilla told Edsurge that “There aren’t a lot of people who have multiple times, managed a thousand-plus organization and done it in a way where anyone you talked to says they're absolutely incredible from a leadership perspective.” Incidentally, AltSchool does not have that many employees, not even close, and Edsurge confirms reports I’d heard earlier this year that the startup has laid off many educators and members of its “school operations” team. The Edsurge article touts the education experience of the new hire – that he is on the board of Twigtale, a “personalized” children’s book startup, for startups. Not mentioned: Twigtale is a startup founded by Johnson's wife, Carrie Southworth. Its investors include Ivanka Trump and Rupert Murdoch’s ex-wife Wendi Deng. And Johnson himself is the godson of George W. Bush. Johnson’s dad was roommates with the former President while at Yale. Small world, I guess, when one is revolutionizing the future of education.

Sebastian Thrun has stepped down from his role as the CEO of Udacity, according to a late Friday afternoon blog post. He'll be replaced by Vishal Makhijani, the former COO of Zynga.

Albert Gray, the CEO of the Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools, has suddenly resigned.

Claude Steele, the executive vice chancellor and provost at UC Berkeley, has resigned. “Mr. Steele’s abrupt departure comes at a time of turmoil for the university, as he and other top administrators have been criticized for their handling of a widening sexual harassment scandal,” according to The New York Times.

Richard Arum will become the dean of the School of Education at UC Irvine, where hopefully he can stop students from being “academically adrift.” (He was the co-author of a book with that very title, incidentally, in which he argues that students learn little in college.)

Graduate students at the University of Missouri have voted to unionize.

JetBlue Will Pay Employees’ College Tuition Upfront,” The Chronicle of Higher Education reports. And in related news, the Hechinger Report observes “Move over 401(k)s – this new perk is helping millennials pay off college loans.”

Intel to Cut 12,000 Jobs as PC Demand Plummets,” The New York TImes reports.

Mindwire Consulting’s Phil Hill looks at the first 100 days of Blackboard’s CEO, a story that should probably go under the “Upgrades and Downgrades” section if only Blackboard would release something more than words.

Upgrades and Downgrades

The soon-to-be-released Minecraft-for-education product (now owned by Microsoft) will require schools have the latest version of the Microsoft operating system and will require students and teachers all have an Office 365 email account. This is a great example of why education can’t have nice things.

Edsurge covers Clever‘s latest product: QR codes on name badges, designed to make it easier for students to log in, via Clever’s single sign-on process, to the software they use in the classroom. I’ve got a lot of questions about security here: what will stop kids from taking others’ badges? What defenses are in place to make sure these codes can’t be tampered with? (See, for example: “The dangers of QR codes for security.”) Password security is definitely a huge ed-tech issue, but this doesn’t seem to get at the heart of the problem at all. Rather, it’s something done in the interest of short-term efficiency and classroom management. Nice PR opportunity though, I guess, for Clever and for the company featured in the marketing video, charter school chain Rocketship.

Via The Washington Post’s Valerie Strauss: “The case against Pearson – and its response.”

Pearson partners with the coding bootcamp The Flatiron School.

There’s more time for schools and libraries to apply for the E-Rate program, Politico reports, as the organization that runs it, the Universal Service Administrative Company, has revamped the application portal; and anytime you hear the phrase “revamped the application portal,” you know it’s a technical mess.

Crain’s Cleveland Business has a look at digital book-lending company OverDrive’s move into education and international markets.

Well this is exciting. Ed-tech entrepreneurs seem to have discovered some research from the 1980s! (Or at least, they’re citing Bloom’s “2 Sigma Problem.”)

LEAP Innovations Releases Personalized Learning Framework and School Survey,” according to Edsurge. LEAP Innovations is a Chicago-based org associated with the city’s 1871 tech hub/incubator.

LinkedIn has launched a job-hunting app for college students:

TurnItIn‘s latest version will emphasize feedback over plagiarism, according to Campus Technology. No clue if this will change the company’s onerous Terms of Service regarding students’ IP.

The New York Times’ Natasha Singer profiles the online quiz app Kahoot. Money quote: “Of course, points, bells, video game leaderboards and all sorts of other brain stimuli can become habit-forming – like ice cream. That does not make them good for students.”

Via the AP: “A billionaire businessman from the United Arab Emirates launched the Arab world’s largest education fund on Wednesday, setting aside $1.14 billion (4.2 billion dirhams) in grants for underserved youth from the region. The Abdulla al-Ghurair Foundation for Education said it plans to provide scholarships for 15,000 Middle Eastern students over the next 10 years.”

“Get Teens Interested in Digital Preservation,” The School Library Journal suggests.


The 2016 Pulitzer Prize winners include two education-related stories: Michael LaForgia, Cara Fitzpatrick, and Lisa Gartner of The Tampa Bay Times on schools as “failure factories” and The Boston Globe’s Farah Stockman on school segregation and busing.

Among the winners of the 2016 Edward R. Murrow Awards, WBEZ-FM for “Need to get out of swim class? Find Dr. Fong.”

(The Conference Formerly Known as “Davos in the Desert”) The ASU-GSV Summit

Props to IHE’s Doug Lederman for this headline: “Scenes From Ed-Tech Heaven (or Hell).”

From Edsurge: “Heard & Overheard at the ASU+GSV Summit,” a story that reports with a straight face that GSV’s Michael Moe called for a “Hollywood Meets Harvard” model for improving education.

“Are ed tech financiers beginning to listen to teachers?” asks the Hechinger Report’s Nichole Dobo in her coverage of the event. Betteridge’s Law of Headlines tells us that the answer to this question is “No.” (Speaking of made-up laws, I believe the Ferengi Rules of Acquisition also offer great insight into venture capitalists in ed-tech.)

Here’s the take from EdWeek’s Market Brief: “Personalized Learning, Products ‘Going Viral’ Are Hot Topics at Ed-Tech Summit.”

ASU, GSV and Tim Draper Join Forces for Higher-Ed Accelerator,” Edsurge reports. Recommended horror story: this 2013 profile of Tim Draper’s “Draper University of Heroes.”

Coverage of Bill Gates’ closing remarks from Edsurge and from EdWeek’s Market Brief. “Ed Tech Has Underachieved But Better Days Are Ahead.” Better days are always ahead.

Funding and Acquisitions (The Business of Ed-Tech)

Apollo’s Education Deal May Need Sweetening,” says Bloomberg’s Gillian Tan. Shareholders might block the acquisition of the University of Phoenix parent company, as some contend the potential buyer, Apollo Global Management, isn’t offering enough money per share.

Lexmark, the printing and software company, agreed Wednesday to be sold to a consortium led by Apex Technology of China and PAG Asia Capital, a private equity firm, for $3.6 billion, including debt,” The New York Times reports. The company sells “solutions” in both higher education and K–12 markets.

The for-profit university Capella Education has acquired the coding bootcamp Hackbright Academy for $18 million. (The for-profits Kaplan bought Dev Bootcamp and Apollo Education bought The Iron Yard last year. As I have previously argued, coding bootcamps are the new for-profit higher ed.)

ClassDojo has raised $21 million to “make parent-teacher meetings obsolete,” says Techcrunch in a story that does not mention pigeons one single time. The behaviorist app has come up with a business model, which involves up-selling to parents who can afford such things. Investors in this round include General Catalyst, GSV, Reach Capital, and SignalFire. The company has raised $31.1 million total.

I missed this announcement back in February, but Halo Neuroscience, “developer of technology to enhance brain performance”, raised $9 million from Lux Capital, Andreessen Horowitz, Jazz Venture Partners, SoftTech Ventures, and Xfund. The company has raised $10.65 million total.

CareerFoundry has raised $5 million from Tengelmann Ventures, Bauer Venture Partners, and IBB Beteiligungsgesellschaft. The self-described “world’s first career accelerator for tech skills” has raised $6.34 million total.

Gradescope Raises $2.6M to Apply Artificial Intelligence to Grading Exams,” Edsurge reports. Investors include Freestyle Capital, Bloomberg Beta, Reach Capital, the House Fund, and K9 Ventures.

CollegeDekho has raised $2 million from Man Capital for its college advertising company. It’s raised $3 million total.

ClassWallet has raised $1.5 million from Idea Bulb Ventures, Techstars Ventures, and William Guttman. The company, which “removes the paper from the ubiquitous ‘paper trail’” of schools, has raised $4.04 million total.

Follett has acquired Baker & Taylor.

Polar 3D has acquired STEAMtrax.

Party over, oops, out of time. Via investment analyst firm CB Insights: “Ed Tech Chill: Ed Tech Startups See Funding Slump And Deals Flatline.” “Is Winter Coming? The Q1 2016 Edtech Funding ‘Dip’ in 5 Charts,” asks Edsurge (which uses a Bitcoin image to illustrate this article, which is only slightly more odd than putting “dip” in quotation marks in the headline.) More on funding research from Edsurge in the “Research” section below.

Elsewhere in handwringing about investments: a lengthy piece from investor Bill Gurley on “Why the Unicorn Financing Market Just Became Dangerous… For All Involved.” In fairness, he’s writing about the tech sector in general here, and according to Fortune at least, there are only two “unicorns” in education: Udacity and Tutor Group.

Data, Privacy, and Surveillance

War is Peace. Freedom is Slavery. And tracking biometrics and keystrokes will make education technology more secure.

Via CSO: “Schools put on high alert for JBoss ransomware exploit.”

Data and “Research”

Edsurge is “Following Edtech Money,” with a report on K–12 venture capital investment in US startups.

Via Education Week: “Virtual and blended schools continue to grow at a rapid pace despite persistently ‘dismal’ academic outcomes and little knowledge about their internal workings, according to a new analysis from the National Education Policy Center.” Edsurge offers its take, pointing out that blended learning might be okay. “Follow edtech money” on that one too, thanks.

Writing up some recent research from the Brookings Institution, The Atlantic explains “Why Lowering Interest Rates Won’t Fix the Student-Debt Problem.”

Via Inside Higher Ed: “A new North Carolina law bars public institutions, including public colleges and universities, from letting transgender people use bathrooms that don’t reflect their assigned gender at birth. A new study by a Georgia State University professor suggests that such policies are linked to suicide attempts by transgender students.”

Via Edsurge: “A new report from the Center on Reinventing Public Education, ”Financing Personalized Learning: What Can We Learn From First-Generation Adopters?“ has found that the costs associated with personalized learning – loosely defined – are largely comprised of salaries, facilities and operations, not technology.” Here’s the EdWeek Market Brief headline: “Financial Viability of Some ‘Personalized Learning’ Charter Schools Unclear, Report Says.”

“Fewer Teens Are Carrying Guns Than Ever,” The Pacific Standard claims, drawing from the National Study on Drug Use and Health.

Via the WCET blog: “Investigating IPEDS Distance Education Data Reporting: Progress Has Been Made.”

From Phil Hill: “State of Higher Ed LMS Market for US and Canada: Spring 2016 Edition.” (This now-famous ed-tech infographic always reminds me of Charles Joseph Minard’s famous graph of Napoleon’s invasion of Russia. Apt, no?)

According to Edsurge, “New Research from Tyton Partners Charts Adaptive Learning’s Higher-Ed Evolution.”

From the History News Network: “Number of history PhDs is at a record, while the number of students majoring in history is falling.”

Note-taking by hand > note-taking by computer, according to research published in Psychological Science.

Via Education Week: “iPads Can Change Math Instruction, Study Finds.” (The study found no change in student achievement or engagement, however.)

“Gallup, with significant funding from USA Funds, will survey Americans on their higher education experiences and perspectives, with the goal of gleaning information that can increase college success,” Inside Higher Ed reports.

“Scholars: Better Gauges Needed for ‘Mindset,’ ‘Grit’” reports Education Week. So, like, more tests? More gauges?

According to a study by the Pell Institute for the Study of Opportunity in Higher Education and the University of Pennsylvania Alliance for Higher Education and Democracy (as reported by Inside Higher Ed): “Wealthy Students Still Much More Likely to Earn Bachelor’s Degree.”

Via The Hechinger Report: “Mississippi’s teacher preparation programs are failing to adequately prepare teachers in reading instruction according to a new report by the nonprofit Barksdale Reading Institute (BRI). The group reviewed 15 traditional teacher preparation programs at 23 different sites in Mississippi and found that the content taught in classes and the hours spent on instruction vary greatly among programs, but that new teachers often learn strategies to teach literacy that aren't research-based.”

Via Mathbabe: “Academic Payday Lending Lobbyists.”

According to a survey by Piper Jaffray, “Teens Are Losing Interest in Chipotle.” They continue to spend a bundle at Starbucks, their preferred restaurant. According to research cited by the Pacific Standard: “Childhood Adversity Shortens Lives (in Baboons).” But let's be honest, eating at Chipotle probably has a similar effect.

From the National Center for Education Statistics: “Projections of Education Statistics to 2023.” But let’s not forget! Harvard Business School professor Clayton Christensen has predicted that half of US universities will be bankrupt by then, so golly, who knows what higher ed enrollment will look like.

Icon credits: The Noun Project

Audrey Watters


Hack Education

The History of the Future of Education Technology

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